1995 SENAA International


Vol. 2; No. 1               SENAA Newsletter             7 February 1997

                            MEETING SCHEDULE

Next Executive Council Meeting:   Thursday, 27 February 1997; to be held
                                  at 1314 Wildwood Lake Road
                                  Cleveland, Tennessee  37311
Next General Meeting:             Thursday, 6 March 1997; to be held
                                  1314 Wildwood Lake Road,
                                  Cleveland, Tennessee  37311

      *              *              *              *              *

                       DEVELOPER JIM SHARP HONORED

      Saturday,  14 September 1995         Recognizing its importance to
marked two landmark events for the    Native   Americans,    and   being
Southeastern    Native    American    sensitive  to our feelings,  Sharp
Alliance (SENAA).  Not only did it    met with SENAA officials on Friday
mark our first anniversary, it was    17  July  1996,  to  announce  his
then that SENAA,  the Eastern Band    decision to preserve the site.
of  Cherokees   and  the  Oklahoma       To ensure that  the site is not
Cherokee Nation  honored Cleveland    inadvertently destroyed, Mr. Sharp
developer  Jim Sharp  for  setting    set  it  aside  as  "green space,"
aside  and  preserving  the Native    never to be developed.
American village  and  burial site        To  make  SENAA's  anniversary
known as Autumn Ridge.                dinner  unforgettable,   an  honor
    Autumn Ridge is one of several    ceremony  for Mr. Sharp was given,
village  sites  in  Bradley County    where    SENAA   President   Steve
occupied by Native Americans  from    Swilling  presented  him  with  an
the Archaic Period until the  1838    engraved plaque mounted on a stand
Removal. State  Archeologist  Nick    that  supported a ceremonial pipe,
Fielder called it "one of the most    both hand crafted  by  artist  and
significant    sites     in    the    SENAA member David Morgan.
Southeast."                           (See SHARP HONORED, page 2)


February 1997               SENAA Newsletter                          2

SHARP HONORED (from page 1)
    Cherokee  Elder  Ned Long  and    made  on our behalf,  for  showing
Tribal Councilman Bill Brown, from    your respect  for  the sanctity of
the  Eastern  Band  of  Cherokees,    our ancestors'  places of rest  in
attended the ceremony  to  express    such  a magnanimous way,  and  for
the Eastern Band's appreciation to    the  valuable gift  you have given
Jim Sharp  for his contribution to    to our people  and to our children
the preservation of our heritage.     and  grandchildren,  we  extend to
   The Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma    you our heartfelt thanks  and  the
was  officially represented  by Al    hand of friendship.
Swilling at the request of Charles         "May the Creator bless you in
Gourd, Cultural Affairs Director.     all your efforts.  You are truly a
     "Mr.  Sharp,"  said Al,  "for    man of honor in our eyes,  and  we
your sensitivity to  the  feelings    are proud to call you our friend.
of  the  Cherokee people,  for the       Thank you, my friend."
sacrifice that you have  willingly          *      *      *      *


  In early November, at the Qualla      At a special meeting of the NARF
Boundary,  Principal  Chief  Joyce    team,  Sheriff Cupp presented them
Dugan  of  the  Eastern Band,  and    with  the award  on behalf of  the
Principal Chief Joe Byrd,  of  the    Cherokee Nation  and the  Hamilton
Oklahoma Cherokee Nation presented    County Sheriff's Department.
the  Native American Reserve Force         The framed citation is now on
(NARF) with  a  citation  for  its    display  at the  Sheriff's  office
service  to  the  Native  American    in downtown Chattanooga.
people, showing their appreciation        SENAA  adds its voice to those
for  NARF's efforts  in protecting    of  other   Native  Americans   in
the Moccasin Bend burial grounds.     appreciation of NARF's  dedication
  Receiving the award for NARF was    and hard work. May NARF enjoy many
Hamilton County Sheriff John Cupp.    more years as the guardians of our
Also present  at  the presentation    ancestors' resting places.
were  NARF officers  Gary Williams
and Lynn Triplett.                          *      *      *      *

                            16 November 1996

   At the 16 November 1996 meeting    "corpse" and "corpses,"  to afford
of  the  Tennessee  Commission  on    all burials proper protection.
Indian  Affairs,   the   following       Laws  pertaining  to  artifacts
topics were discussed:                were also discussed,  with general
Grave and Artifact Protection Laws    agreement that  those  laws should
   Concern was expressed about the    pertain    to    all    artifacts,
state  laws  protecting  artifacts    including    "prehistoric"     and
and burials,  and  how  they  need    cultural items,  as well as burial
to be changed.                        items. The purpose for this change
    The general consensus was that    is  to  eliminate a market for all
the grave desecration laws need to    Native  American   artifacts.   If
be reworded  to include all "human    there's  no  market,   there's  no
remains,"  rather  than  the words    (See COMMISSION MEETING, page 3)


February 1997                SENAA Newsletter                          3

motive to dig up burials.             spirituality  as  a  part  of  the
    The Commission asked that each    healing process.
Native    American    organization    NARF Commended
select  two  people  to  represent        The  Native  American  Reserve
it  in  the state legislature, and    Force (NARF)  was commended by the
to participate in the rewording of    Commission  for  the   award  they
pertinent laws.                       received from  Eastern and Western
Substance Abuse Rehab Hospital        Band Chiefs,  Joyce Dugan and  Joe
   Another topic discussed was the    Byrd.   NARF was recognized by the
establishment of a substance abuse    Cherokee  Nation  for  outstanding
rehabilitation hospital for Native    work   protecting   the  remaining
Americans,  which would be located    burials  and  the historical value
in middle Tennessee.  Treatment at    of Moccasin Bend.
the    facility    would   include
bringing   back   Native  American           *      *      *      *

                            OUR NATIVE TONGUE

Syllabary       Tsa-La-Gi         Pronunciation         English

                O-ni-di-tlv       Oh-nee-dee-tluh       Behind

                E-la-di-tlv       Ay-lah-dee-tluh       Below

                A-ye-li           Ah-yay-lee            Between

                E-la-di           Ay-lah-dee            Down

                Do                Doe                   Go

                Do-yi             Doe-yee               Go out!

                Ga-lv-la-di       Gah-luh-lah-dee       Heaven, Up

           (E.) Yv-wi-ya-hi       Yuh-wee-yah'-hee     (Native American)
           (W.) A-yv-wi-ya-i      Ah-yuh-wee-yah'--ee   Indian

         (E.) A-ni Yv-wi-ya-hi    Ah-nee Yuh-wee-yah'-hee
         (W.) A-ni A-yv-wi-ya-i   Ah-nee Ah-yuh-wee-yah'--ee  Indians

                Ha-wi-ni          Hah-wee-nee           Inside

                Do-ye-hi          Doe-yay-hee           Outside

           (E.) Yv-wi             Yuh-wee
           (W.) A-yv-wi           Ah-yuh-wee            People

                Ga-lv-lo-di       Gah-luh-low-dee       Sky

NOTE:  For those on our mailing list who did not receive our first
       newsletter, the Cherokee syllabary, and an accompanying
       pronunciation guide, appear on the last page of this issue.


February 1997                SENAA Newsletter                          4

                            GO-WE-LI NV-WA-TI
                           (The Medicine Book)

       Like the foods that nourish        This new series is designed to
the world, up to 80 percent of the    give   fundamental   knowledge  of
medicines  used today are a direct    various  medicinal  plants,  their
result  of  the  Native Americans'    properties, and their uses.  There
knowledge  and  use   of   healing    are  also some very good books  on
herbs.  Indeed,  the  survival  of    today's market that  are  accurate
many of the first settlers was due    and reliable.  Two examples are:
directly to our ancestors' sharing     Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia
that knowledge.  Not only were the    of Herbs; 1987, Rodale Press, Inc.
early  settlers'   larders  filled    Emmaus, Pennsylvania;  and
with   foods   provided   by   our      Back to Eden,  by  Jethro Kloss;
ancestors,     their     extensive    Message Press, Coalmont, Tenn.
pharmacopoeia consisted  primarily      Another helpful book that may be
of  medicines  obtained  from  the    of interest is Peterson's Guide to
very   people   they   sought   to    Edible  Wild  Plants;  Peterson's,
destroy.                              Inc., Princeton, NJ.

                              SACRED PLANTS

Cedar:  The popularity of sage has    Cedar  may  also  be combined with
overshadowed,  to some degree, the    tobacco,  sweet grass and/or sage.
use of traditional substances  for    Commercially made smudge sticks of
smudging  rituals.    In  Cherokee    these mixtures  are  available  at
tradition, sage was not one of the    specialty shops.
original herbs used  for smudging.
Originally, cedar and tobacco were    Silver Sage (Artemisia tridentata)
used  for  such  purposes.  Cedar,     Is not true sage, though the odor
therefore,   is  sacred   to   the    is  very similar to  culinary sage
Cherokee people.                      (Salvia officinalis). Silver sage,
    Today,  among Native Americans    commonly known as sagebrush, grows
and  non-Indians alike,  cedar  is    wild  on  the  American  prairies,
known for  its clean,  fresh smell    whereas   culinary  sage   is  not
and  its  ability to repel insects    indigenous to this continent.
such as  roaches and moths.  Cedar       First considered a sacred plant
shavings  placed in bureau drawers    by  the  plains tribes,  it is now
repel insects  and  keep  clothing    commonly  held  as sacred  by most
smelling  clean  and  fresh.   Old    Native American  peoples,  and  is
fashioned cedar "shif-a-robes" and    used  by  most,  either  alone  or
cedar chests last for decades with    combined  with  cedar, tobacco, or
minimal  care,  and  were once the    sweet grass,  in  smudging rituals
first choice for clothing storage.    and other religious ceremonies.
    When  using  cedar shavings in        Silver  sage  thrives  on  the
bureau drawers,  placing them in a    American  plains,  but  also  does
sachet  or  a  plastic  or ceramic    well  in  the  mountains   and  in
container  perforated  with  small    domestic gardens.
holes to allow the scent to escape
will  keep  bits   of   wood  from    Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica):   Has
getting into the clothing.            always  been sacred to all  Native
     Smudge sticks of cedar can be    American tribes. To the Cherokees,
made  by   tying  small  twigs  or    its sacred power is surpassed only
thinly  split strips into bundles.    (See MEDICINE, page 5)


February 1997                SENAA Newsletter                          5

MEDICINE (from page 4)
by Golden Seal.  Used for smudging    tonic,    laxative,    antiseptic,
and in pipe ceremonies, it carries    treatment of ulcers,  dressing  on
the  prayers of its users  to  the    wounds, eye wash, and treatment of
Creator,  in  the  same  way  that    thrash  (yeast  infection  of  the
frankincense and myrrh  convey the    mouth).   Powdered root  put  onto
prayers  of   Islam,  Jewish   and    poison oak  or ivy,  or mixed with
Christian people to the Creator.      crushed  plantain leaves  and aloe
    In  addition  to  its  uses in    and put onto the rash, will dry it
religious ceremonies,  it also has    up and keep it from spreading.
medicinal properties,  in spite of         Powdered goldenseal will also
its  bad  reputation  due  to  the    effectively draw venom from insect
misuse popularized by non-Indians.    stings and poisonous spider bites,
Moistened  and  applied  to insect    reduce   swelling,   and   promote
bites  and  stings,  tobacco  will    healing. Put onto infected wounds,
draw venom  out  of  the wound and    goldenseal  will cleanse the wound
reduce swelling.  It also exhibits    and promote healing.
some antiseptic properties.               Tea for internal use, as it is
                                      used to treat ulcers  and  relieve
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis):    morning sickness during pregnancy,
Also called  yellow  root,  yellow    is made by  steeping a teaspoonful
paint root,   orange root,  ground    of powder or crushed dried root in
raspberry,  yellow puccoon, yellow    a pint of boiling water for twenty
Indian paint,  Indian  paint,  eye    minutes.  Stir well,  let  settle,
root,   eye   balm,   yellow  eye,    and drain off liquid.    Take  six
tumeric root, and jaundice root.      tablespoonfuls of the tea per day.
   Goldenseal is the most powerful    The tea can also be used as a wash
herb in Cherokee medicine,  and it    for  inflammations,  eczema,  open
was  from  the Cherokees  that the    sores,  ringworm,  and  other skin
early  settlers  learned  of  this    diseases.   For an eye wash, steep
herb.   Before  going into battle,    a small  teaspoon  of  boric  acid
Cherokee  warriors  painted  their    (optional) with the tea, let cool,
bodies with the juice  and  chewed    and  mix  one teaspoon of tea with
on  a  piece   of  the  root   for    -cup of  water.  Bathe eyes  with
protection  against  their enemy's    this, using an eye cup or dropper,
weapons.                              for  relief  of  inflammation  and
    One group of warriors fighting    tired eyes.   Especially effective
for    the   Confederacy    always    against Staphylococcus aureus.
painted themselves with goldenseal         Goldenseal lowers blood sugar
and  did  the  appropriate rituals    levels,  making   it   useful  for
before  going  into battle.   None    treating stress and anxiety.
were ever wounded or killed, while
non-Indians  about  them  fell  to       CAUTION:  While the doses given
enemy fire.                           here   are   perfectly  safe   for
     Powdered goldenseal root  was    internal use,  it  should be noted
(and  still is)  used  in  certain    that  in   very   large   amounts,
religious  ceremonies,  especially    hydrastine,  an  active ingredient
in rituals  of  protection against    in  goldenseal,  is  toxic.  It is
malevolent   forces,   human   and    also cumulative.  Large quantities
spiritual.  It was also mixed with    overstimulate  the nervous system,
bear grease and put on the body to    and can cause convulsions, nausea,
repel insects.                        or  respiratory failure.  However,
    As a healing herb,  goldenseal    ill effects  from  goldenseal  are
is equally impressive.   Among its    extremely rare.
myriad medicinal uses are those of    (See MEDICINE, page 6)


February 1997                SENAA Newsletter                          6

MEDICINE (from page 5)
    Goldenseal is also valuable as    diuretics, and diaphoretics.
a dye, and as a pigment in oil and       Gray goldenrod has been used as
watercolor  paints.    Mixed  with    a  carminative.   Sweet goldenrod,
indigo,  it gives a pleasant green    also considered  a  carminative by
color   to  cotton.    Used   with    some,   has   been   used   as   a
mordants (fixatives),  it produces    stimulant.   Tea  made   from  the
permanent dyes  ranging  from pale    leaves    has   been   given   for
yellow to orange.                     flatulence and  vomiting,  and  to
                                      soothe  a  headache.  The  flowers
Goldenrod (Solidago):  Is  another    have laxative properties,  and tea
plant  sacred  to  the  Cherokees.    made from them  have been  used to
Its dried stems are, by tradition,    treat urinary tract obstructions.
used to kindle  the council fires.         The  Chinese  use  "European"
Both Native Americans  and Chinese    goldenrod   for   headaches,   for
have long known the healing powers    treating  the  flu,  sore  throat,
of  goldenrod.   British  folklore    malaria, and measles.
claims that the herb  is  a healer       As a remedy, steep one teaspoon
of not only the body,  but  of the    of sweet goldenrod leaves in a cup
pocketbook,  as well.  Always  the    of  water.   To  use  the flowers,
fortune hunters, they claimed that    steep  one ounce of flowering tops
the  golden  flowers   pointed  to    in a pint of water.
equally golden hidden treasures.         Crushed goldenrod leaves can be
   The Latin name, Solidago  means    used to heal  wounds,  sores,  and
"to make whole,"  attesting to its    insect bites.
reputation as a healer.                 The flowering heads of goldenrod
    Sweet goldenrod  was  an early    can be used as  fabric dye.   They
herbal equivalent of sugar coating    produce varying shades  of yellow,
on a pill.  The pleasant smell and    depending on what mordant  is used
anise-like taste of the tea  could    and  the   natural  flukiness   of
disguise  disgusting  flavors  and    of  natural  dyes.   Cyrus Hyde of
odors of other ingredients.           New Jersey's  Well-Sweep Herb Farm
     Three varieties of goldenrod;    recommends adding  onion skins and
S. nemoralis  or  gray  goldenrod,    sage   to   the  dye  pot  if  the
S. odora  or sweet goldenrod,  and    goldenrod  yields   too  brassy  a
S. virgaurea or European goldenrod    yellow for your taste.
have  been  used  as  astringents,          *      *      *      *

                       CHEROKEE CHURCH NEEDS HELP

     The Cherokee United Methodist    child, no rocking chairs to soothe
Church,  at  the  Qualla Boundary,    and  quiet  fussy infants,  and no
needs  help  to  establish  Sunday    changing tables to use.
School classes for its children.         The  children  of  this  church
    The church has four classrooms    need your help.
for  its  40 to 50  children,  but         If you have time to donate to
those rooms are empty  and in need    help paint and remodel classrooms,
of painting and remodeling.  There    or if you have  chairs,  materials
are  no chairs for them to sit in,    to build tables,  or money you can

no tables upon which to do  Sunday    spare  to help  buy  Sunday School
School activities, and no supplies    supplies  and  literature,  please
or  literature with which to learn    contact Al Swilling, 423-479-2827.
of a loving, caring Creator.            Make cash donations payable to:
    The nursery is bare.  There is    Cherokee United Methodist Church
not one  crib  to lay  a  sleeping    P.O. Box 367, Cherokee NC  28719


February 1997                 SENAA Newsletter                          7

     Silver Sage (Sagebrush)                       Goldenseal
     (Artemisia tridentata)                  (Hydrastis canadensis)

                Sage                              Goldenrod
        (Salvia Officinalis)                      (Solidago)

 February 1997                 SENAA Newsletter                          8

                         THE TSA-LA-GI SYLLABARY

      Pronunciation key:  a, as in watch; e, as a in game, or the ‚ in
caf‚; i, as ee in keep; o, as in boat; u, as oo in boot; v, as the u in
but; tsi, as chee in cheek, or jee in jeep, sometimes as see in seek;
tso, as cho in chosen, or Jo in Joke, sometimes as so in soak; tsa, as
jah or cha in Charles, sometimes as sah; tse, cha in change, or ja in
Jason, sometimes as sa in sacred; tsu, ju in juice, or choo in choose,
sometimes as soo in soon ; tsv,ju in judge, ch in child or chu in chum,
sometimes as su in sudden; g, as in gun, or approaching k; qw, as qu in
quick or quote, sometimes as k in king or kill.

A -         E -         I -         O -         U -         V -

GA -        GE -        GI -        GO -        GU -        GV -

KA -

HA -        HE -        HI -        HO -        HU -        HV -

LA -        LE -        LI -        LO -        LU -        LV -

MA -        ME -        MI -        MO -        MU -

NA -        NE -        NI -        NO -        NU -        NV -

HNA -       NAH -

QWA -       QWE -       QWI -       QWO -       QWU -       QWV -

S -         SE -        SI -        SO -        SU -        SV -

SA -

DA -        DE -        DI -        DO -        DU -        DV -

TA -        TE -        TI -

TLA -       TLE -       TLI -       TLO -       TLU -       TLV -


TSA -       TSE -       TSI -       TSO -       TSU -       TSV -

WA -        WE -        WI -        WO -        WU -        WV -

YA -        YE -        YI          YO -        YU -        YV -

Our apologies for the interruption in our printing of the Newsletter. We
will do our best to see that such a delay doesn't happen again.  Thank
you for understanding and for your continued support.  -- Editor

1997; Southeastern Native American Alliance; White Eagle
    Publications, Cleveland, Tennessee, 37311.  All Rights Reserved.







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