1995 SENAA International


Vol. 1; No. 8               SENAA Newsletter               4 April 1996

                            MEETING SCHEDULE

Next Executive Council Meeting:   Thursday, 25 April 1996; to be held at
                                  1314 Wildwood Lake Road
                                  Cleveland, Tennessee  37311
Next General Meeting:  Thursday, 2 May 1996; to be held at
                       1314 Wildwood Lake Road, Cleveland, Tennessee.

      *                   *                   *                   *

                         A REMINDER AND A CHANGE

    A reminder  that  SENAA's Ramp       Besides getting stuffed on lots
Day Social is Saturday, 20  April,    of delicious home cooking, we will
beginning  at 11:30  a.m.             also have a blowgun competition.
    The location has been changed.      We ask that our ramp chefs be at
Since we would be  at the mercy of    the  park  an  hour or two  early,
the weather at Red Clay,  we  will    since the pavilion  is on a first-
hold this year's Social at Tinsley    come-first-served basis.
Park in Cleveland (see map, p. 9),      SENAA will furnish drinks, paper
which has a pavilion  for shelter,    plates, plastic-ware, napkins, ice
in case of rain.                      and ramps (prepared, of course).
   Remember,  the  Ramp Day Social       Invite a friend, fix a pan, pot
will be pot-luck,  so plan to make    or bowl of something you like, and
your favorite dish to share.          come on down  to  Tinsley Park for
  Steve & Al Swilling, Brian Davis    our  first annual Ramp Day Social.
and  J.R. Davis  will gather ramps    It'll be fun---and "full-filling!"
for this year's feast. Anyone else
who  would  like  to  help  gather
ramps is welcome.                         *       *       *       *

 4 April 1996                SENAA Newsletter                           2


NOTE:  In order to protect the ancestral graves at the site, this report
and  the report in the March newsletter are purposely vague in regard to
the exact location  and  the name of the developer,  lest a copy of this
publication fall into hostile hands.  SENAA members know the specifics.
                                                               -- T.A.S.

   In the March newsletter, we ran    will, Creator willing.
an article about a Native American
village,  burial site  and  burial               Attitudes:
mound  in  Cleveland, Tenn.,  that         In  phone  conversations  the
is  slated  for  development.  The    developer expressed his desire "to
site  is  called "Autumn Ridge" on    do the right thing," saying he has
the preliminary plat. On 26 March,    no desire  to move or disturb  any
a  meeting   was   held   by   the    graves if there was any way around
Cleveland/Bradley County Municipal    it.  "The way I see it,"  he said,
Council.   At  that  meeting,  the    "it's  wrong  to move someone from
preliminary  plat for the site was    their resting place.  I think they
considered for approval.              should  be  allowed  to   rest  in
         The Evidence:                   He assured SENAA, that if there
    On 11 March,  an archeological    are  burials  on the property,  he
team of two men and two women from    will  work out a way to avoid them
the  University  of  Tennessee  at    and prevent their disturbance.
Knoxville,   under  the  direction        For the time being,  at least,
of  Chuck  Benz,  arrived  on  the    he  seems  desirous  to  cooperate
scene  and  worked  until 29 March    with us.
shovel-testing  the   Autumn Ridge
site.   The   official  report  is               The Meeting:
forthcoming,   but  in  interviews         At  the  26  March  Municipal
with the team, it was learned that    Council meeting,  City Planner and
the site is Mississippian,  dating    council   member    Craig   Bivens
at around 1,100 A.D.,  with traces    ensured   SENAA's  opportunity  to
of Hiwassee period artifacts.         voice  Native Americans'  interest
     Among items found  in surface    in  protecting  the  burials  that
collections were flakes of various    most assuredly exist on the Autumn
materials used for arrow and spear    Ridge site;  bringing our interest
points; pottery shards, both plain    to the attention of the Council.
and decorated; a piece of a finely       The developer  was heard first,
crafted black steatite (soapstone)    being asked  by Council members to
pipe bowl; an abundance of  "daub"    brief them  on the findings of the
(the clay used by the early Native    archeological    team    and   the
Americans  to  seal  the  walls of    ramifications of  those findings.
their homes);  and pieces of bone,       The developer stated that since
including skull fragments.            shovel tests  were negative on the
   In  at least  one  shovel test,    24 southernmost lots, he wished to
bone was encountered, indicating a    begin development  of  those lots.
possible burial.                      Since  the  remaining lots  on the
   Though many artifacts have been    northern section  showed  positive
turned  up  over  the years during    and indicated a rich archeological
cultivation  of  the land,  we are    area,  he said  he  would postpone
fortunate  that  any  graves  that    development  of that section until
might  be  on the site are intact.
We hope to keep it that way -- and    (See AUTUMN RIDGE, page3)


4 April 1996                SENAA Newsletter                           3

AUTUMN RIDGE (from page 2)
the  archeologists  had made their    may  be  revoked  if the developer
report  and  advised  him  of  his    voilates the Council's instruction
options.                              or  if  the  archeological  report
    SENAA's   President  and  Vice    indicates   that   more  extensive
President  represented  the Native    testing is warranted.
American interests at the meeting.      Approval of the preliminary plat
Upon completion of the developer's    is  a  first  step,  and  does not
statement,  SENAA  representatives    allow the developer to do any work
voiced   the   organization's  and    at  the  site beyond that approved
Native Americans' concerns for our    by  the  Council;  nor can he sell
ancestral burials  and  our desire    the  property or any portion of it
that  any graves found on the site    until  a  second  reading  by  the
remain  undisturbed,  rather  than    Council, at which time all factors
disinterred and relocated.            will be considered.
    SENAA also advised the Council        So far, the developer has been
and   the   developer,   at  their    very cooperative,  and  has agreed
request,   of  state  and  federal    to provide SENAA with  photocopies
Native American  grave  protection    of the  archeological report.  The
laws, and the proper procedures to    Municipal Council  has  also  been
follow  in the event  that a grave    very  understanding,   and   seems
is  accidentally  disturbed  while    willing to assist Native Americans
developing  the  south side of the    in preserving the integrity of our
property.                             ancestors' graves, in this case.
   SENAA made the Council aware of
the developer's statements that he    AN UNEXPECTED DEVELOPMENT
would not  disturb any burials  if       During the archeological study,
if he could avoid doing so.           another  interesting discovery was
    With   instructions  that  the    made.   The  property  immediately
developer  would  only develop the    south of the Autumn Ridge site was
southernmost  24 lots specified on    discovered  to  be  the site of an
the preliminary plat,  and pending    Archaic  period  settlement.   The
the  results of  the archeological    site  is  so  heavily  laden  with
study,  the  Council  approved the    evidence  that  one  can  scarcely
preliminary Autumn Ridge plat.        walk without stepping on something
                                      of significance.
WHAT IT MEANS                             SENAA  has slated that site as
  Since approval was given pending    its next preservation project.
the  archeological  reports,   and      The Cherokee Nation and TIC have
providing  the  developer confines    been notified  of the Autumn Ridge
his  initial work to the southern-    site, and their support requested.
most  portion of the property,  it        *       *       *       *

                           STARS IN OUR MIDST

    Move over, Chuck Norris!  Look    the guardians of Moccasin Bend.
out, Stallone! Make way, Jamie Lee       The  terrific  trio  will  make
Curtis!   New action heroes are on    their film debut on  22 April,  on
the scene -- and they ain't faking    Chattanooga's   PBS  station  WTCI
it!                                   (UHF channel 45).
   Three of SENAA's NARF officers,      Though SENAA won't be mentioned,
Steve Swilling,  Pam Triplett  and    we're proud of our celebrities.
Lynn Triplett, may be destined for       I  just  hope  I  can get their
Hollywood  after  appearing  in  a    autographs before their  new-found
documentary  about NARF's  work as    fame goes to their heads.


4 April 1996                SENAA Newsletter                           4

                              MOCCASIN BEND
                         Preserving the Resource

                            by, Ray Zimmerman

[From EnviroLink Magazine]            VISIONS OF THE PAST,
   Visiting Moccasin Bend  is like    VISITORS OF THE FUTURE
"walking  into  a shipwreck  or  a      Imagine reenactors demonstrating
time capsule."  So says Jim Ogden,    the life of a civil war soldier or
historian   at   Chickamauga   and    a Native American Indian. Visitors
Chattanooga   National    Military    on  guided  walks  might  view the
Park.   Ogden's  comments focus on    campsites  and fortifications, but
the  Civil War  era  artillery and    they  would  also  have first-hand
infantry  fortifications  and  hut    experiences   of   the    cultures
sites  remaining  from a two-month    represented.   Children on a field
occupation in 1863.                   trip may  learn  to  throw a spear
   In  the words  of Tom Kunesh of    with an atlatl, chip an arrowhead,
the    Chattanooga     InterTribal    or weave a basket.  Families would
Association,   Moccasin  Bend   is    hear a storyteller tell legends of
"... the last best piece of native    the  Cherokee and Creek nations or
culture in  our  region  following    view  a  video  on  the ceremonial
the  near-total   destruction   of    life of the Mississippian culture.
Citico Mound,    Heritage Landing,       That's  one  view  of  the  way
and Ross' Landing."                   Moccasin Bend  could  be developed
   "The   archeological   material    to  reveal  its important past and
records a history  of 12,000 years    significance  in  modern  develop-
of  human  habitation  and  inter-    ment.  In fact, most plans revolve
action  with  the  natural world,"    around  the  development  of  some
says  Friends of the Moccasin Bend    sort  of  center that explains the
member   Frank  M.  Robbins,  III.    historical  significance   of  the
Moccasin  Bend   "is  a   treasure    Bend   and    gives    visitors  a
standing   idle.    Making   it  a    perspective of Chattanooga  that's
national  park  could  be a highly    quite   different    from    other
attractive  asset  to  the tourism    attractions.
industry."                               Native American groups envision
    There  seems  to be no lack of    a center that is respectful of the
opinion  as to  what Moccasin Bend    Bend's  sacred  ceremonial  sites.
is  --  and  what  it  should  be.    According  to  Kunesh,  any center
Fearful  and  still smarting  from    should  be   an  interpretive  and
such  destructive  construction as    cultural  center  outside  the 960
the bulldozing of Cameron Hill and    acres  of  sacred  space.   No new
the   paving  of   Ross'  Landing,    concrete structures should mar the
several attentive,  active, and at    land,   and  interpretation should
times,   aggressive  groups   have    focus  on  revealing what is there
proposed   plans   that   preserve    and  its  significance  to  Native
Moccasin    Bend     and     allow    Americans.   The  cultural  center
Chattanoogans   and  visitors   to    would  serve  Native Americans and
enjoy  and  respect   its  bounty.    Native Americans and show visitors
While  they   differ  in  the  way    that native culture is not dead.
Moccassin Bend  should  or  should         Friends   of   Moccasin  Bend
not  be developed,  the groups all    envision  a  center that opens the
agree  on   the vast   historical    Bend's "time capsule."  The center
significance  of  the thousands of    would   provide   an  educational,
acres of land  enclosed by a twist    enriching   experience   for   the
and turn of the Tennessee River.      (See MOCCASIN BEND; page 5)


4 April 1996                SENAA Newsletter                           5

MOCCASIN BEND (from page 4)
visiting  public   by   preserving    nations consider  wildlife safaris
important artifacts and areas. The    a major part of their economy.
focus would be on sharing the many       Ecotourism  has  the  appeal of
stories  in  the  many  voices  of    solving  two  problems  at once --
those who lived there.                providing  protection  for fragile
                                      resources  and  providing economic
GAINING NATIONAL PARK STATUS          opportunities  at  the  same time.
       Secretary of Interior Bruce    Can it work at Moccasin Bend?
Babbitt  toured  the Bend  in June      Friends of Moccasin Bend believe
1995  and lent his support for its    so  --  if  the Bend joins Lookout
preservation.                         Mountain  and  Chickamauga Battle-
   "(We must) . . . preserve  this    field  as   a  portion   of   that
extraordinary  slice  of America's    national   park.    According   to
heritage    for   our   kids   and    Robbins, the National Park Service
future generations,"  Babbitt told    is  "...the best agency to protect
reporters."We can't let developers    the Bend -- bar none."   He points
pave  over  such an important part    out  the  resolution   passed   by
of our national heritage."            Congress  in  1950  and  signed by
      Though enthusiastic, Babbitt    President   Harry  Truman,   which
stopped short of any commitment on    authorized    expansion   of   the
the government's part  to  take on    Chickamauga    and     Chattanooga
the responsibility for the Bend.      National Military Park  to include
   Park  Superintendent  Pat  Reed    the Bend.
Reed  was   more  direct   in  his       "The resolution was an historic
comments:   "Resources    of   the    precedent," Robbins says.
Chickamauga    and     Chattanooga       "Development  of  Moccasin Bend
National Military Park are already    can happen in a way that maintains
stretched too thin  to accept more    respect  for  the  Native American
responsibility," he says.             sites at the bend,  but allows all
  Despite federal reservations and    citizens to enjoy its beauty."
tight   purse   strings,   Robbins       Other groups agree, as well. In
believes  the  best way to provide    1995,  members  of the Chattanooga
the    public    with    such   an    InterTribal Association  voted  in
interpretive  site  is through the    favor of the National Park concept
development of  a national park at    because  the National Park Service
Moccasin Bend.                        has specific rules and regulations
   "A visitor center would provide    for  dealing  with  and protecting
protection  for  the  artifacts at    cultural resources.  Neither state
Moccasin   Bend   and   complement    or  local  governments  have  such
existing   facilities    for  area    regulations.
visitors,"   Robbins  says.    "In       A  national  park   would  help
addition,  such  a cultural center    Native  Americans   battle   three
would  keep   the  visitors in town    fronts  for  the  preservation  of
longer  and provide a boost to the    sacred  sites  in  the Chattanooga
local economy."                       area, Kunesh says.
 The use of natural and historical       "Those  three threats to relics
resources  as  a means of economic    are  big  money  developers, water
development    is    hardly   new.    level fluctuations, and individual
Residents of the  Yellowstone area    looters," Kunesh says, adding that
run  a  variety of businesses that    he  believes  the sites should not
serve  visitors  to the park, from    be  disturbed   by  even  academic
cafes   and   guide   services  to    archeologists.
airports and lodges.  Many African    (See MOCCASIN BEND, page 6)


4 April 1996                SENAA Newsletter                           6

MOCCASIN BEND (from page 5)
 Friends of Moccasin Bend recently    in place at Williams Island,  just
received  a grant of  $25,000 from    downstream  from  the  Bend, where
the  Benwood Foundation  to  study    there  are   numerous  prehistoric
the   feasibility    of    gaining    village   sites.   The   State  of
national park status.   They  have    Tennessee  owns the island,  which
engaged  the  firm  of  Thomas  I.    is managed  by the Tennessee River
Martin  of  Cambridge, Mass., as a    Gorge   Trust.     However,   this
consultant in their endeavor.         arrangement also suffers from lack
  The enthusiasm for national park    of  a  revenue source.   The state
status  for  Moccasin  Bend  among    does not currently  fund interpre-
local   government   officials  is    tation   or   protection   of  the
guarded,  at  present.  Both Mayor    Williams Island site, and there is
Gene Roberts  and County Executive    no  source  of  revenue  for  such
Claude   Ramsey   have   indicated    developments  in  the near future.
reluctance  to  cede  land  on the    The  archeological  digging   that
Bend  currently  owned   by  local    takes place at Williams Island may
governments.                          also  be  controversial   to  some
  In July, Roberts and Ramsey told    elements in the community.
reporters  that  the  cost  to the
city  and  county to give up their    TIME WILL TELL
portion of the Bend  might include        As Chattanooga  moves into the
$1.5 million  to  void  the  lease    21st century, numerous development
with  Moccasin  Bend  Golf Course,    opportunities  will  be  evaluated
and $250,000 to replace the police    and pursued,  but  any  such plans
firing range.                         will  undoubtedly  remain  on hold
 "I would like to see the National    until  the  issue  of  revenue  is
Park  Service  have  a  plan for a    resolved.
park,  and  not just intend to put         But  during   discussions  of
it  in   their  inventory,"   says    financing,     preservation    and
Roberts. "The portions of the Bend    development,  it  should  never be
now owned  by local government are    forgotten  that  the  resource  at
protected by covenants  that allow    Moccasin Bend  is  finite.    Once
only  institutional   and   recre-    gone, it can not be replaced.  And
ational development. We don't want    all of us  would be the poorer for
to  give up  that protection until    its loss.
we  know  what  will happen to the        Until a decision is reached to
land."                                Moccasin  Bend,  important  sacred
                                      and   historical  sites   must  be
BANDING TOGETHER                      protected. Pam Triplett and Stuart
  Some officials have promoted the    Aitken are two members of a Native
idea  of  a  partnership  plan  to    American Reserve Unit (sic) of the
promote  protection   and   inter-    Hamilton County  Sheriff's  Office
pretation of the Bend.  This would    that patrol the area daily.  Since
allow participation of the private    the unit began its patrol, looting
sector    and    all   levels   of    has decreased dramatically.
   A partnership model  is already        *       *       *       *

                             APRIL BIRTHDAYS

Happy Birthday Wishes go to the following people:

J.R. Davis  .  .  .  .  . 13 April    Tina Swilling-Falkowski . .3 April
Miss Virginia Johnson  . . 9 April


4 April 1996                  SENAA Newsletter                         7

                          DO-TSU-WA -- REDBIRD

    Do-tsu-wa was the  daughter of    beautiful redbird.
the Sun, I-ga E-hi Nv-do.                That is how the redbird came to
    One day,  Spreading Adder  and    be, and why the Cherokees  call it
Copperhead killed Do-tsu-wa.  When    Do-tsu-wa.
she  died,  her  spirit  became  a

                              YO-NA -- BEAR

 Long ago, in the Smoky Mountains,    on  his  body   grew   thicker  and
there lived  a  young Cherokee boy    longer, he grew great claws on his
named Yo-na.   Yo-na liked playing    his hands and feet,  and his snout
in the forest so much that,  after    grew  long  from  always  sniffing
awhile, he  was  spending  all his    about.   Finally, he was no longer
time there,  and  would not answer    human.  He had become a bear. That
when his mother called for him.       is how the black bear came to be.
   As Yo-na spent more and more of       To this day, the Cherokees call
his time in the forest,  the  hair    the bear Yo-na.


4 April 1996                  SENAA Newsletter                         8

                            OUR NATIVE TONGUE

Syllabary      Tsa-La-Gi          Pronunciation              English
               TA-LA-DU           Tah-lah-doo                TWELVE
               I-YA-NV-DA         Ee-yah-nuh-dah             MONTHS

               Yu-no-lv-ta-nv     Yoo-no-luh-tah-nuh         January

               Ka-ga-li           Kah-gah-lee                February

               A-nv-yi            Ah-nuh-yee                 March

               Ka-wo-ni           Kah-woe-nee                April

               A-ne-s-gv-ni       Ah-nay-skuh-nee            May

               Di-ha-lu-yi        Dee-hah-loo-yee            June

               Gu-ye-qwo-ni       Goo-yay-koe-nee            July

               Ga-lo-ni           Gah-low-nee                August

               Du-li-s-di         Doo-lee-stee               September

               Du-ni-nv-di        Doo-nee-nuh-dee            October

               Nv-da-di-wa        Nuh-dah-dee-wah            November

               V-s-gi-ga          Uh-skee-gah                December

1996; White Eagle Publications; Cleveland, Tennessee  37311
  All Rights Reserved