1995 SENAA International


Vol. 1; No. 9 & 10          SENAA Newsletter        2 May - 6 June 1996

                            MEETING SCHEDULE

Next Executive Council Meeting:   Thursday, 27 June 1996; to be held at
                                  1314 Wildwood Lake Road
                                  Cleveland, Tennessee  37311
Next General Meeting:  Thursday, 4 July 1996; to be held at
                       1314 Wildwood Lake Road, Cleveland, Tennessee.

      *                   *                   *                   *


   On 1 May 1996,  Cherokee Nation    harmonious  with the wishes of the
Repatriation   Director    Charles    Cherokee Nation.
Gourd  appointed  SENAA   as   the        Mr. Gourd  said  that  SENAA's
Oklahoma Cherokee Nation's eastern    representation  of   the  Cherokee
Tennessee   representatives,   and    Nation  will  not  only  help  the
SENAA  Vice President  and  Public    Cherokee  Nation,  but  will  also
Relations  Director   Al  Swilling    give SENAA  more  credibility  and
as spokesman.                         negotiating power.
   The appointment  came  to SENAA       Mr. Gourd also said that anyone
as the result  of  its  efforts at    who  questions SENAA's position is
the  Autumn  Ridge  site  and  for    welcome  to  phone  him  at  (918)
its position on the Moccasin Bend/    456-0671,     ext.    467,     for
national park  proposal,  which is    verification.

                            SENAA -- EXPOSED

  On the weekend of 26 & 27 April,    organizations  the  opportunity to
the   Bradley  Square   Mall,   in    raise  public awareness  and funds
Cleveland,   Tennessee,   provided    for  their  groups  by  setting up
local churches and other nonprofit           (See EXPOSED, page 2)


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           2

EXPOSED (from page 1)

booths  in  the  aisles throughout    traditional beliefs  and  those of
the mall.  SENAA participated.        Christianity, Al Swilling spoke to
    Displays  of  all descriptions    the  children  of  Mrs. Dinsmore's
lined  the  walkways,  as  various    class and provided a craft project
organizations    vied    for   the    for the children to make and keep.
attention  -- and donations --  of       The  craft  was a single-strand
weekend shoppers.                     bone  and  corn  bead  choker,  to
    Thanks  to  the  help  of  the    remind them of the Trail of Tears.
Johnson  family   and  others  who       After  the  services,  Asbury's
contributed time and items to sell    congregation  presented SENAA with
to raise funds,  SENAA  received a    a love offering to help us fulfill
warm and friendly response.           our goals.
   Approximately   150   pamphlets       Our  sincere  thanks  to  Jenny
were distributed, and we even made    Dinsmore,   her  class,   and  the
enough  sales  to  cover  printing    entire congregation  of the Asbury
costs.                                United Methodist Church.
      NATIVE AMERICAN SUNDAY            Special thanks to Rich Dinsmore,
   On  Sunday,  28 April,  SENAA's    editor of the Bradley Weekly,  for
President   and   Vice   President    bringing our organization  to  the
appeared   at  the  Asbury  United    attention of his wife, Jenny, thus
Methodist Church  by invitation of    creating the opportunity for us to
Sunday  School  teacher   Virginia    participate in the church's Native
Dinsmore.                             American Sunday.   May the Creator
    As  President  Steve  Swilling    bless them all.
spoke  to  the congregation  about
the similarities between  Cherokee         *       *       *       *

                          by, Jefferson George
         [Reprinted from The Chattanooga Times; 13 April 1996]

    So far,  the  effort  to  turn    and should be ready by early May.
Moccasin Bend into a national park       Along with those efforts,  U.S.
has   been    something   like   a    Representative   Zach   Wamp   has
marathon,   a  tiring  journey  in    carried  the  group's   banner  to
which    the   participants   have    Washington,   meeting  with  other
crawled  along   with  no  end  in    elected officials and resurrecting
sight.                                earlier legislation in Congress.
    But a collection of determined        As  with  any  major  project,
individuals  feel  they  might  be    obstacles remain,  namely  getting
able to see the finish line.   And    everyone on the same page locally.
although  some hurdles loom in the    But with existing legislation  and
final stretch,  these runners also    the potential for what they see as
seem to have a fresh set of legs.     a  landmark  interpretive  center,
    Next  week,   the  Friends  of    supporters think  they finally can
Moccasin Bend  National Park  will    push the national park effort over
announce a proposed Trail of Tears    the hump  --  more than  40  years
Interpretive  Center   that  would    after  the idea  first entered the
anchor   an   eventual    956-acre    local scene.
national park. In addition, a park       "It is difficult to add land to
feasibility study  conducted  by a    the  national park system,  but it
Massachusetts firm has taken shape            (See BEND, page 3)


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           3

BEND (from page 2)

certainly can be done," said Wamp.    former   UTC   professor,   is  an
"It's  fascinating to me . . . but    authority   on   Cherokee   Indian
I  don't  want  to  get  the  cart    history and the Trail of Tears.
before the horse."                        King said it's well known that
    Wamp  admitted  recently  that    Ross'   Landing    was   a   major
pressure  on  the   National  Park    emigrating depot  for the Trail of
Service  to  scale back  will make    Tears in the 1830s-- about a third
things   tough;   Congress   isn't    of  the  Cherokees   heading  west
"closing the doors,"  but projects    either left from or passed through
are  "raked  across  the  coals  a    there. But recent research by King
little more closely," he said.        shows  that  some  detachments  of
   Another  sticking point  may be    Cherokees     actually    traveled
the  Moccasin  Bend  Golf  Course,    through Moccasin Bend  en route to
which is leased from the city  and    present-day Oklahoma.
county.   Before  Wamp  submits  a         "Chattanooga   is   extremely
proposal to Congress,  he wants an    significant  in the interpretation
agreement made  with  the city and    of the Trail of Tears," King said.
county  regarding  the  facility's    "The fact that detachments started
future.                               from  Chattanooga,  that thousands
    Chattanooga Mayor Gene Roberts    of    Cherokees   were   held   in
and   Hamilton  County   Executive    confinement  and  that  it  was  a
Claude Ramsey have said that until    population    center    are    all
there's a bold,  dazzling plan for    arguments    to     support     an
the Bend,  that area's  fate  is a    interpretation  of  the  Trail  of
low priority.                         Tears in the area.
   "I don't know of any definitive      With more information like this,
steps,"  Roberts  said,  "to  move    park  supporters  are  hoping area
that golf course.   The  city  and    residents  will be won over to the
county  would have  to condemn the    idea as well. A poll of 718 county
lease,  and  that  would  cost  an    residents conducted in February by
awful lot  of  money . . . I can't    Southern  Public Opinion  Research
imagine  that  would happen unless    found    that     while     future
something extraordinary  was  pro-    development  of  the Bend  doesn't
posed for that bend."                 have   overwhelming   support   in
   Ramsey also wasn't aware of any    general,   the  top  two  projects
immediate discussion on the issue.    favored are a national park and an
  "I've not seen any proposals and    American Indian Museum.
not known any interest,"  he said.        On the federal level, Wamp has
"It would not be (a high priority)    had    "substantial  conversation"
with me."                             with  other Trail of Tears experts
    Wamp  has spoken  with the two    from  Santa Fe,  N.M.,   and   has
leaders  about plans for the Bend,    spoken   with   U.S.  Senator  Ben
and  thinks  the impending release    Nighthorse  Campbell  of  Colorado
of  the  study  coupled  with  the    about  holding  a   Senate   field
proposed  interpretive center will    hearing in Chattanooga to focus on
help make it a higher priority.       the national park efforts.
  "The potential Moccasin Bend has      All of these moves have somewhat
for the city and county will knock    validated Friends of Moccasin Bend
their socks off," Wamp said.          National Park, a group just over a
   Discussions with Dr. Duane King    dozen  strong  with   their  hopes
of the  Southwestern Museum in Los    pinned  to   the   National   Park
Angeles  have Wamp  positive about    Service and the Congressman.
the chances for success.   King, a           (See BEND, page 4)


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           4

BEND (from page 3)
    "This  is  really  a  national    the most attractive.
historic  landmark already,"  said       And although they're looking to
Leighton LeBoeuf,  a member of the    Washington, the group hopes to wow
group  and public affairs director    a few local folks while they're at
at  Moccasin  Bend  Mental  Health    it.
Institute.   "We've  always  had a      "It's just going to be a  matter
pretty  clear  understanding  that    of trying  to  cross all the right
city and county funding  would not    bridges," LeBoeuf said. "This is a
be available."                        situation where we really need the
    Park   supporters   think  the    help of  the state,  the city  and
project  can  be funded federally,    the county to make it work."
and  they  look  to  other  recent        But while park supporters have
additions  to  the  National  Park    been   patient   for   some   time
Service,   such  as  Little  River    already, they may have to endure a
Canyon  and the enlargement of the    while longer,  perhaps borrowing a
Great  Smoky  Mountains   National    page  from  those  who  toiled for
Park, for hope.                       years on the stadium effort.
   "We don't want to continue with       "The  land  out there  is being
the 'No Trespassing' signs,"  said    preserved . . .We can  wait a long
Mickey  Robbins,   another   group    time for  an attractive proposal,"
member  and  a  trustee   for  the    Mayor Roberts said.  "Anything has
mental hospital, which wouldn't be    to get in line,  and  there  are a
affected  by the park.   "We  want    lot   of  things  that   are  more
something  that will be attractive    pressing."
to the entire community. . . . The
National Park  Service  option  is          *      *      *      *

                          MAY & JUNE BIRTHDAYS

Happy Birthday Wishes to the following people:

Al Swilling . . . . . . . .  5 May    Rachel Davis.  .  .  .  .  .6 June
Steve Swilling . . . . . .  28 May    Brian Davis .  .  .  .  .  13 June
Pam Triplett . . . . . . .  28 May    Kelly Davis .  .  .  .  .  14 June
Shelby Sutherland . . . . . 31 May    Helen Swilling-Warren .  . 24 June

                      CLEVELAND MUSEUM TO OPEN SOON

     On 7 June, the new Cleveland-    advisor  on  that  exhibit and the
Bradley Regional Museum  will host    script  planned  for the portrayal
a "kick-off party"  from 5-11 p.m.    of a Cherokee elder in his 70s.
at the planned facility site.            The museum, operated by Jim and
  The museum will focus on various    Carolyn Williams,  are  conducting
aspects  of  Cleveland and Bradley    an  art contest  for K-sixth grade
County history, including its days    school children  for  artwork that
before white settlers took over.      interprets  their  vision of seven
    Among  the  exhibits will be a    historical characters  the  museum
section on Cherokee history. SENAA    has chosen to exemplify the area's
President Steve Swilling  has been    history.
asked  to  act as  their technical         *       *       *       *


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           5

                            A DUTY TO HISTORY
          [Reprinted from The Chattanooga Times, 9 May 1996]

    Col.  John  M.  Chivington,  a    memory of the massacre -- led by a
Methodist  lay  preacher  and U.S.    Christian  minister  --   was  the
Cavalry officer,  led a force that    first  thing  young  Indians  were
butchered   some   200    American    taught.   Seeing   their   intense
Indians,   mostly     women    and    memory  of  the  hateful event and
children, at Sand Creek, Colorado,    its    lingering    ripples,    he
in 1864.  That massacre was dusty,    initiated    the   campaign   that
distant history  to most Americans    finally     resulted     in    the
until late April,  when leaders of    denomination's apology.
the    United   Methodist   Church        Hopefully,   the   Methodists'
acknowledged  the  slaughter  in a    acknowledgement  will help heal an
noteworthy way.                       unhealed  wound  and  bring   some
   They  voted  to issue  a formal    resolution,  and peace,  to people
apology  on  behalf  of their  8.7    who  remain  latter-day victims of
million   members   to   the   two    the dispossession and slaughter of
American   Indian   tribes   whose    America's native peoples.
Cheyenne  and  Arapaho   forebears       This story  is  enlightening in
were among the massacred.             many ways. It teaches that history
   Their act  speaks volumes about    does  not  just  illuminate   past
the value  of  cultural memory and    deeds and their consequences,  but
history  and  offers  a  wealth of    also shapes our lives today,  even
lessons.   One  is  the  value  of    as we shape tomorrow's history.
history  as  a  moral, ethical and       History is alive.  Our  culture
social compass in our daily lives.    and values today  reflect  a point
   The  Methodists'  apology,  and    on a  continuum  of history,  from
their    explicit    request   for    yesterday to tomorrow.  So a sense
forgiveness,  reminds  us  of  how    of  our time and place  in history
interconnected  we are as families    is crucial,  and  we neglect it at
and  as  a culture from generation    our peril.
to   generation.    It's  good  to       Our sense of history determines
remember  that  connectedness.  It    more than  our standards of social
bears  on  the   responsibilities,    justice  and  ethical  values.  It
values  and  burdens  we convey to    also,  for  example,   shapes  our
our children and grandchildren.       stewardship  for that piece of the
   What we teach our children  and    Earth bestowed on us, and which we
reinforce  in  our cultural values    will  bestow   --  for  better  or
are  the  things   they  come   to    worse -- on our children.
remember,  value, nurture and pass      Our physical environment is both
along themselves to their children    a  bequest   and  a  legacy.   Yet
and future generations.               because we are such a new country,
   The Methodists learned that the    relatively  speaking,  we  seem to
Cheyenne  and  Arapaho descendants    value  and  protect  it  less well
of  the  slaughtered   Sand  Creek    than nations with longer histories
encampment  carried  an   entirely    value   and   protect  their  com-
different    memory    than    did    munities and physical heritage.
descendants of the settlers led by       Europe,  for  example,  abounds
Col. Chivington.                      with the  physical edifices of its
  The Rev. Alvin Deer is an Indian    rich history --  ancient churches,
and  Methodist minister  who began    cobblestone villages and well-worn
working  in  1985  on the Oklahoma    paths  in  old   public   forests.
reservations  where descendants of    Because  a sense  of  its peoples'
the Sand Creek victims live today.    histories permeates their cultural
He learned  that  their embittered    (see DUTY TO HISTORY, page 6)


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           6

DUTY TO HISTORY (From page 5)

landscape,    they   cherish   and    We  cry  for  a  return   to  safe
respect that landscape.               neighborhoods  and  simple values.
    Here,  where  there   are  few    Yet  we  build  subdivision  after
remnants of  our physical history,    subdivision without sidewalks  and
disrespect is commonplace.  Litter    nearby    playgrounds,     forcing
and degradation --  billboards and    pedestrians  to  dirty,  dangerous
decaying  buildings  and  unguided    road   shoulders    and   families
urban  sprawl  --  are  shockingly    increasingly  to  their  cars  for
worse   here   than    in    other    trips to remote recreation centers
industrially  advanced  but  older    for leisure.
nations.                                  We tell our children  we value
    Somehow,   the   uprooted  and    our  environment and schools,  yet
transient  settlers   from  Europe    we  focus   on  roadbuilding   and
must  have  traded  their cultural    underfund education.
aesthetic standards for the skills        The values we transmit  to our
needed to tame a rawer land -- and    children  often conflict with what
those  lost   aesthetic  standards    we say.   Much of this social  and
were    never    recovered     and    cultural incohesion  results  from
retransmitted.                        lack   of    cultural   historical
    The  exploitive standards  are    perspective    and    too   little
the ones that continue. We find it    attention    to    building   that
normal   to    clear-cut   ancient    unifying fabric.
forests.  Or to leave huge cuts of      So I wonder how our children can
raw earth exposed  and  uncovered,    be different. Or will they someday
and  dumps  open.   To  see  those    have   an   epiphany,   like   the
wounds, look, sometime,  at Signal    Methodists   at   their   Colorado
Mountain Boulevard, Hixson Pike or    convention,  and be forced to tell
along  any  of  a dozen other main    their  children  that  they,  too,
thoroughfares.                        have    been    neglecting   their
    That loss of  guiding cultural    heritage, and want forgiveness?
history  has other manifestations.         *       *       *      *

                             GROUND SQUIRREL
                           (A Tsa-La-Gi Story)

    Long ago,  all  the people and    Gi-Yu-Ga,   the  Ground  Squirrel,
animals ate only plants, but there    spoke.
came a time  when food was scarce,       "None of the people  have  done
and the people had to kill animals    me  any  harm,"  she  said.  "They
for food.                             don't eat me.  I have decided that
   This angered and frightened the    I  will  not  inflict  any disease
animals,  so  they  held  a  great    upon them."
council to decide what to do. They        After the council,  Gv-He, the
finally decided  to  give diseases    Bobcat,  was angry  with  Gi-Yu-Ga
to the people for eating them, and    and  scratched her across the back
began deciding  which disease each    as she turned to leave.
animal  would  inflict.                 Gi-Yu-Ga still has the scratches
   As they  discussed  the matter,    on her back to this day.   *   *


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                         7

                            OUR NATIVE TONGUE

Syllabary      Tsa-La-Gi          Pronunciation              English

               Sa-qwu-i           Sah-gwoo-ee
            or Sa-qwu             Sah-gwoo                   One

               Ta-li              Tah-lee
                               or Tahl                       Two

               Tso-i              Choe-ee
            or Tso                Choe                       Three

               Nv-gi              Nuh-gee                    Four

               Hi-s-gi            Hee-skee                   Five

               Su-da-li           Soo-dahl                   Six

               Ga-lv-qwo-gi       Gahl-gwoe-gee              Seven

               Tsa-ne-la          Chah-nay-la
                               or Chah-nel                   Eight

               So-ne-la           So-nail                    Nine

               S-go-hi            Skoe                       Ten

               Sa-du              Sah-doo                    Eleven

               Ta-la-du           Tahl-doo                   Twelve

               Tso-ga-du          Choe-ga-doo                Thirteen

               Ni-ga-du           Nee-ga-doo                 Fourteen

               S-gi-ga-du         Skee-gah-doo               Fifteen

               Da-la-du           Dah-la-doo                 Sixteen

               Ga-lv-qwa-du       Gahl-gwah-doo              Seventeen

               Ne-la-du           Nay-la-doo                 Eighteen

               So-ne-la-du        So-nay-lah-doo             Nineteen

               Ta-lv-s-go         Tahl-skoe                  Twenty

               O-ni               Oh-nee                     After

               I-gv-yi-di-tlv     Ee-guh-yee-deet-luh        Before

               U-gi-tsi-ha        Oo-gee-chee-ha             Daylight

               A-ga-li-ha         Ah-gah-lee-ha              Sunshine


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                         8

                       THE SECRETS OF AUTUMN RIDGE

NOTE:    Lest a copy of this publication  fall into hostile hands,  this
report  and the reports in the March and April newsletters are purposely
vague in regard to the exact location and the name of the developer.
                                                               -- T.A.S.

   The sun was sweltering for most    systematic,  yet painfully  piece-
of the  seven days  the University    meal.
of  Tennessee  archeological  team        At  best,  reading  the  final
spent  studying  the  Autumn Ridge    chapter  via a few  two-meter-wide
site. SENAA's President, Treasurer    trenches  was  akin  to  reading a
and Vice President watched closely    book  with key passages obscured--
from   29 April through 4 May,  as    one  gets  the  general idea,  but
archeologists  Rick Blatchley, Rob    misses  important and enlightening
Kelly, and  backhoe  operator John    details.
Rasely  carefully skimmed away the        "Julie leveled the .357 magnum
topsoil, 1/2" to 1" at a time,  in    on the darkened figure that loomed
two-meter-wide swathes,  to reveal    over  her,  knife  raised  for the
the  subsoil  beneath  --  and the    killing  blow.   A light  went  on
secrets of Autumn Ridge.              somewhere  across  the street,  at
    Exposing the clay subsoil  was    last  illuminating the face of her
like opening an ancient magician's    attacker.   The gun  shook  in her
secret journal,  wherein  lie  his    hand as she  stared with disbelief
secret,  magical formulae.   As is    into  the  familiar  face.   Tears
the  case  with   any   magician's    filled her eyes. Her senses reeled
grimoire, this earthen chronical's    at the realization that the person
text was written in its own secret    who had terrorized her and was now
code.  As archeologists deciphered    about to kill her was . . .
the terrene typography,  the  tale       The suspense is almost painful.
it told  was every bit as exciting    You've   followed    the   heroine
and  mystical  as  any  magician's    throughout   her  ordeal.   You've
tome; imparting new reality to our    lived with her  through  her  most
ancestors' lives that,  until now,    harrowing experiences. Her pain is
most of us had only heard about.      your pain.  Now,  she  has finally
   Equally impressive was the care    seen  the  face  of her tormentor,
with which each thin, earthen page    and you want to see it, too.   But
was turned and examined.              you can't,  because  the last page
    John,  the  backhoe  operator,    is missing.
worked   with    surgical   skill,       It's the same frustration  felt
maneuvering   the  awkward-looking    by   the   archeological  team  at
back bucket as deftly as a surgeon    Autumn  Ridge.   Because  of  time
manipulates his instruments.          limits  -- and budget --  the last
  Evident in his careful treatment    pages had to remain unread.
of the soil  was  John's reverence       Fortunately,  enough  clues had
for  Mother Earth  and the secrets    been collected to piece together a
he coaxed her to reveal.              satisfactory   scenario,    albeit
    The yellow-orange subsoil  was    speculative   and   probably  less
the  climactic  chapter   of  this    interesting than the real thing.
saga; where all the taunting clues       The history of Autumn Ridge, we
of  previous pages  came  together    learned,  is a long one.  Evidence
and the suspense they created  was    shows  occupation  of  the site by
at once intensified and rewarded.     Native Americans  from the Archaic
    New revelations were stark and       (See AUTUMN RIDGE, Page 9)


2 May - 6 June 1996         SENAA Newsletter                           9

AUTUMN RIDGE (from Page 8)

Period  (8000-1000 BC)  until  the    fortify  their  village;  the same
Trail of Tears in 1838.               survival instinct that led them to
   It's little wonder  why  Autumn    settle here at  Autumn Ridge.  But
Ridge  was  such a  popular place.    there was an enemy  that  even the
Nestled  in the  cradle  of Bigsby    strongest fortification  could not
and  Candies  creeks,  with a lush    repel, nor could it be fought with
forest  surrounding the ridge,  it    lances, blowguns or arrows  --  an
was the ideal site.   Hunting  and    enemy  that   killed  and   maimed
fishing  were good,  and  the rich    indiscriminately  and   invisibly,
bottom land surrounding  the ridge    without reason or remorse. Judging
and in the nearby flood plain  was    from the evidence, it made war at
ideal farmland.                       Autumn Ridge -- and took its toll.
   The most plentiful evidence  of    This enemy's name, in the Cherokee
Native American occupation is from    tongue,  is  U-Yu-Gi -- Disease.
the Mississippian Period (700-1300       The legacy  of  that battle  is
AD).                                  recorded  in  the  pages of Autumn
  For the Mississippians, teamwork    Ridge's earthen journal.
wasn't the least of their virtues.       In just the  thin ribbons  that
   On  the  northeast  end  of the    were examined,  a disproportionate
ridge crest  once stood  a village    number of burials were discovered.
surrounded by a 120 meter diameter    Of the  eleven graves encountered,
palisade  wall  one  meter  thick.    nine  were multiple burials;  most
Surrounding  the  wall  was  a two    of them inside their dwellings.
meter wide ditch.   Added onto the       In one home,  a small child was
palisade,  either  as  a  means of    buried beside the hearth. A burial
separating   social   classes   or    on  the other side  of the hearth,
perhaps just to ease overcrowding,    and  a multiple  burial  only  two
was  a  second  palisade  the same    feet  from   the  child's   grave,
diameter  as  the first  extending    reveal the fate of the rest of the
southwest    an   additional   110    family.
meters.                                  True,  the deaths  and multiple
   Homes  and   other  structures,    burials could have been the result
including  a council house,  stood    of battle  with an invading tribe,
in  close  proximity   inside  the    except  that   burying  the  child
palisade,  with  other  structures    beside the hearth appeared to have
outside  on the southeastern slope    been  an  act of  loving, bereaved
of the ridge.                         parents.   The other burials being
   The time and effort required to    so  near  the  child's appeared to
build the massive palisade, not to    have been done  in the same spirit
mention  the buildings themselves,    by grieving friends and relatives;
with only  stone and wooden tools,    essentially reuniting  the  family
was  enormous.  Seeing their work,    in the spiritual realm as they had
one could sense the comradery  the    been on the physical plane.
villagers must have felt,  as they       Whatever caused  so many deaths
worked together toward this common    we can only speculate.  The  pages
good.                                 unread no doubt solve the mystery,
    As   the   study   progressed,    but alas,  we  perhaps  will never
however,  another  factor  in  the    know the truth  until we join them
lives  of  these villagers  slowly    in the spiritual realm.  Perhaps
came to light that  evoked a  more    we know all we need to know for
solemn empathy.                       now;  that being that their graves
   It was a matter of survival for    are at Autumn Ridge  and  need our
our  ancestors  that  led  them to       (See AUTUMN RIDGE, Page 10)


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                        10

AUTUMN RIDGE (from Page 9)

protection from  backhoe and heavy    Band  of  Cherokee Indians and the
equipment  operators   less  adept    Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma.  That
than John Rasely.                     failing,  there is the possibility
   In this case, we are fortunate.    that  the  state of Tennessee will
The  developer,  sensitive  to our    buy the property  and set it aside
feelings,  has agreed to meet with    as a historical landmark.
SENAA  members,   Tennessee  State       Steps  are  now  being taken by
Archeologist Nick Fielder, and the    SENAA Public Relations Director to
archeologists  who  conducted  the    have  the  site   listed   on  the
study, to  decide  on  a course of    National  Registry   of   Historic
action  that  is  agreeable to all    Places.
concerned.                               May the Creator, U-ne-la-nv-hi,
   Among proposed solutions is the    continue to protect this site, and
possibility of SENAA obtaining the    bless us  with  such  good fortune
property  and  deeding  it  to the    on  every  site  we  undertake  to
joint  possession  of  the Eastern    rescue.    *     *     *    *

                               John Wilson
         [Reprinted from Chattanooga Free Press, 18 April 1996]

    A group  planning  a  Trail of    of  major  new expenses associated
Tears   Interpretive   Center   at    with construction and operation of
Moccasin Bend is eyeing a location    the center.
on  the  Tennessee  River  in  the        U.S.  Park  Service  officials
vacinity of  Manufacturers Road in    have  cited  budget  cutbacks  and
sight  of  the  popular  Tennessee    inability  to   take  on   certain
Aquarium.                             additional projects.
   Jay Mills,  vice  president  of       Mr. Mills  said,  "If  visitors
the   Friends  of   Moccasin  Bend    could  see  the  museum  from  the
National Park,  said  the  site is    Aquarium,   they  would  recognize
outside  the  boundaries   of  the    that  it  is  not  a long distance
proposed  national  park   on  the    away."
Bend,  where the city,  county and       He  said  there are discussions
state own more than 900 acres.        underway  of  a  water  connection
   He said siting the museum  out-    between   the   Aquarium  and  its
side  the  national park  area  is    allied   attractions    at   Ross'
preferred  "because we do not want    Landing and the museum.
to   impact    the   archeological       Mr. Mills  said  the  museum at
remains within the park site,  nor    that   location   "could  be   the
do we  want to be  intrusive  in a    terminus for the  Riverwalk and at
visual sense."                        the  same time  be  the gateway to
   Earlier, a proposal to build an    the Moccasin Bend National Park."
amphitheater  on  state-owned land        The  35-year-old  archeologist
at  Moccasin Bend  ran into  heavy    said the  Trail of Tears topic "is
opposition and was withdrawn.         something  both  Native  Americans
   Mr. Mills said  it is projected    and    others    as    well    are
that  the  Trail  of Tears  museum    increasingly interested in."
would be operated  by  a nonprofit       He  noted  that several detach-
group.    He   said   that   would    ments  of  Cherokees went out from
alleviate  the  federal government          (See CENTER, page 11)


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                        11

CENTER (from page 10)

Ross'  landing  in  1838  in their    institutions and individuals would
forced exodus to the west and some    cooperate  in  making  those items
some went across Moccasin Bend.       available   to   the   Chattanooga
    "This  was  one of the primary    museum.
staging  area  when  the Cherokees       Shirley  Hoskins  and   Shirley
were  rounded  up.   This is where    Lawrence,   who   are  planning  a
they  saw  their homeland  for the    Cherokee  memorial in Meigs County
last  time  and  where  they  said    at   the   location   of   another
goodbye to the land," he said.        departure point  for  the Trail of
   Harley  Grant,  a  Chattanoogan    Tears,  said  they believe the two
who  is  chairman of the Tennessee    projects    can   compliment   one
Commission on Indian Affairs, said    another.
he believes if the museum is built       They said  the effort  in Meigs
that  many artifacts taken earlier    County  is to have a memorial wall
from   Moccasin   Bend   will   be    in  which  the  names of those who
returned.                             went  on  the  Trail of Tears  are
    He said he knows the locations    displayed  and to have an American
of  many such artifacts in museums    Indian genealogy center.
and private collections.
   Mr. Grant said he believes many          *      *      *      *

                     SENAA'S VIEWS ON MOCCASIN BEND
                               Al Swilling
                        Public Relations Director

      "Friends  of  Moccasin  Bend    printed  articles  that  represent
National Park"  (FMB)  is a rather    their  views  and   arguments  for
misleading title,  when  you think    their proposal.
about it.                                 In each article,  through each
  At first glance, one would think    argument for their proposals, runs
they were friends of Moccasin Bend    the thread of truth  wrapped  in a
itself;   trying  to  preserve  it    thin   veneer   of  concern.  That
because they  value it for what it    thinly veiled thread is greed.
is  --  a  Native American  burial        Their  rhetoric  abounds  with
ground  and  historical site.  One    such terms  as  "economic impact",
would also think that  FMB members    "economic potential",  "boost  the
are sympathetic to the wrongs done    local   economy",    "ecotourism,"
to  the Cherokees and other tribes    "economic opportunities", and "use
who  were  driven from their home-    "of...historical  resources  as  a
lands by thievery and deceit. But,    means of economic development"  --
sadly, that isn't the case.           all used  to describe and validate
     Reading  this  issue  of  our    their   planned   exploitation  of
newsletter, one might also get the    something that doesn't  rightfully
impression that SENAA supports the    belong to them.   FMB and CITA are
proposals  made  by  FMB  and  the    unabashedly proposing  to  exploit
"Chattanooga InterTribal  Associa-    the  remains and burial places  of
tion" that Moccasin Bend be made a    our  ancestors   for   their   own
national park. But, that isn't the    financial  gain;  yet  not  a word
case, either.                         about  sharing  that  income  with
    To be fair,  and to give equal    those  who alone have the right to
time  to the opposition,  we  have         (See VIEWS, page 12)


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                        12

VIEWS (from page 11)

possession  under  the 1990 Native    of  its  proponents,  the national
American  Graves  Protection   and    park  proposal  might almost  seem
Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)  --  the    attractive,   except  for  another
Cherokee, Creek,  and other south-    disturbing proposal -- putting the
eastern indigenous tribes.            artifacts  from  Moccasin Bend  on
     As far as I know, no one from    display in a museum.
either  group  has  the  voluntary        Cherokee  Nation  Repatriation
consent of our people  to  use the    Director  Charles Gourd  adamantly
artifacts, burials, or remains  at    opposes   the   display   of   any
Moccasin Bend for profit.             artifacts  taken  from the burials
   CITA claims to speak for Native    at  Moccasin  Bend  or  any burial
Americans, yet the Cherokee Nation    site.
in  Oklahoma  says  that CITA does       When asked his opinion of FMB's
NOT  speak   for  them.               and CITA's proposed display of the
    No one  from  CITA or FMB  has    artifacts,   he   said,   "No.  No
spoken  to  the  tribes  to obtain    artifacts  or  remains  are  to be
permission  to   speak  on   their    displayed  in  any  manner.  Those
behalf,  nor  have they earned the    objects  are to be put back in the
privilege.  How  can  anyone speak    ground  where  they came from, and
for others without  first speaking    under  no  circumstances  are  any
to those he claims to represent?      more to be dug up."
   SENAA earned, with considerable     It all boils down to the same old
effort, its privilege to speak  on    story:  if  Indians  have anything
behalf of  the  Oklahoma  Cherokee    of value,  there  is  a faction of
Nation.   Also,  we were appointed    non-Indians that won't rest  until
the honor by the tribal government    they possess it, by whatever means
--  not through self-proclamation.    necessary.  And  they  expect  the
  It is precisely because we first    government  to  back them  up,  as
sought to abide by the will of the    always  --  still clinging  to the
Cherokee  Nation   that   we  were    pathetic myth of Manifest Destiny.
entrusted as its representatives.
   If not for the ulterior motives          *      *      *      *

             Land Owners in Dry Valley Area Being Contacted
                            by, Allen Mincey
        [Reprinted from the Cleveland Daily Banner; 29 May 1996]

     The  city  of  Cleveland  has    city to find  willing sellers  for
contacted  six  property owners in    such a facility -- instead of  the
the Dry Valley Road area to see if    use of  eminent domain  --  led to
they would  agree  to  sell  their    this procedure.
land for a new municipal airport.         "This has been  on-going for a
    Cleveland   Planning  Director    few months,"  Bivens  said.  "I've
Craig  Bivens  said  this  morning    talked  with  the   six   property
that City Manager George Wood  has    owners,  and  only one to date has
authorized him to  "work with some    signed the option."
property owners to  secure options       The property owner, Ralph Smith
to purchase"  about  350 acres  of    of McMinn County,  died last week,
property for a new airport.           Bivens said. The planning director
    Bivens  said  that legislation    said  the  city  would   not  hold
passed last year that requires the          (See AIRPORT, page 13)


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                        13

AIRPORT (from page 12)

Smith's  son  to any agreement his        All property owners would have
father had signed  if  the son was    to  be  willing   to   sell  their
against the agreement.                property  for  a new airport to be
    "The property owners have each    built in that area,  Bivens added.
expressed a willingness to discuss      "And then, we have no assurances
(the options)," Bivens said.          if  we   would   get  funded   our
   The site would be south of what    application," he added.
aeronautic  studies   labeled  the        Placing  an  airport   on  the
best location,  which  was  in the    property  at  the  Moore farm  was
Tasso area  (Rattlesnake Springs).    estimated   to   cost  about  $5.7
Owners of that property, the Moore    million.  Bivens said if the other
family, had said they did not want    property is used,  "you would have
to  sell their property and fought    a more expensive airport, no doubt
against  any  moves  by  the  city    about that."
toward condemnation  of  what they        He said that  additional costs
called  "productive farmland"  for    could be up to $4 million.
an airport.                               Funding  would be  sought from
    The state legislature passed a    federal sources,  which  might pay
bill that requires county approval    up to  90 percent  of the project,
if the city wishes to use  eminent    and state sources, which could pay
domain  proceedings   outside  the    an additional 5 percent.  The city
municipality    boundaries.    The    would  be  required  to  fund  the
Bradley County Commission  went on    remaining  5 percent,  if  federal
record  last  year  opposing  such    and state funding is approved.
condemnation proceedings.                "And it would be up to the City
    "After that was halted  by the    Council  to approve that funding,"
state legislature,  it pretty much    Bivens said.
left it up to us contacting people        Bivens  did not  identify  the
in  the community,"  Bivens  said.    other property owners, but did say
"That's  our  first  and  foremost    that the 350 acres  of property is
task, finding if there are willing    all  adjoining.    The  350  acres
sellers."                             needed  is  comparable to what was
    An   analysis   revealed  that    being  looked  at  north  of  this
Cleveland and Bradley County needs    alternate site, he said.
an expanded airport,  Bivens said,       He added that if one land owner
so   searching   for   appropriate    decides not to agree to the option
property became the next step.        for  the  land,  then  the airport
    "The  options  we are  talking    could not be built in that area.
about,  as  written,  are  for  12        "We have no time frame whatso-
months,"  Bivens  said,  "which is    ever for securing  these options,"
much   longer   than   options  on    Bivens    added,    saying    that
property  are   normally   written    discussions   with  the   property
for."                                 owners will continue.
    This  is  due  to several land    [EDITOR'S NOTE:   SENAA  contacted
studies  that  would  have  to  be    Craig Bivens  and  was  told  that
conducted   on   the  property  if    the  land studies  that  would  be
options are granted, he said. This    conducted on any potential airport
would  include   an  environmental    site  would include  archeological
assessment  that  could  take from    studies. Bivens will contact SENAA
six months to a year.                 when such a study is scheduled.]
       *             *              *              *             *


2 May - 6 June 1996           SENAA Newsletter                        14

                            FESTIVAL OF FIRE
                  Native American Drums, Dance and Art
                          July 26, 27, 28, 1996

    For three days  in  late July,        Surrounding the arena  will be
while the Olympics  are being held    booths filled with Native American
in downtown  Atlanta, Georgia, the    vendors representing  the  artwork
nearby suburb  of  Duluth  will be    and fine crafts from Native People
the  site  of another celebration,    all  over  the  United  States.  A
that  of  Native  American  drums,    special jury  has been selected to
dance, arts and crafts. During the    ensure that  all  work for sale is
weekend  of  26, 27, and 28  July,    made  by  Native Americans  and of
the   building   and   surrounding    the highest artistic quality.
grounds of the  Gwinnett Fine Arts       Also in separate booths will be
Center  will  host   a  continuous    artists   from    seven   of   the
display and performance  of Native    federally recognized tribes of the
American  culture.    Festival  of    Southeast United States.  This art
Fires,  a Cultural Olympiad event,    and  fine  craft work will also be
is the only full-scale Festival of    for sale to the public.
Native American culture  under the        The Festival of Fire will also
auspices  of  the  Olympics in the    offer  the    De-ne-yo-la  A-lo-he
Atlanta area.                         U-na-na-de-he   (Children  of  the
    Each of these three days, from    Earth  Camp)  for children,  which
10 am until 9 pm, visitors will be    will teach them about the cultures
offered  a wealth  of  visual  and    of the Southeastern tribes.
musical  entertainment,  which  is        A more in-depth preview can be
also  an   education   about   the    read  in  the 29 May 1996 issue of
indigenous  Americans'  lives.  An    the Cherokee One Feather.
arena  has  been  created  in  the       Exciting visuals and additional
field  adjoining  the   Fine  Arts    information about all the Festival
Center which  will be the site for    of Fire  events can be explored on
the   drums,   song,   dance,  and    the Internet.  The address is:
storytelling   ongoing  throughout       http://gwinnett-arts.wl.com.
the day, all three days.                   *       *       *       *

1996; White Eagle Publications, Cleveland, Tenn. 37311.
  All Rights Reserved.